Gulf stream current slowing at a catastrophic rate
The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) sea currents are vital in transporting heat from the tropics to the Northern Hemisphere, but new research suggests climate change might knock the AMOC out of action much sooner than we anticipated.

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Scientists raise odds of catastrophic sea level rise
A new paper  warns that if global warming continues at the current pace — reaching high-end warming projections for 2100 — then sea-level rise will probably surpass the worst-case projections.

Poleward drift of currents: faster sea rise, malnourished marine life
The world's major wind-driven ocean currents are moving toward the poles at a rate of about a mile every two years, potentially depriving important coastal fishing waters of important nutrients and raising the risk of sea level rise, extreme storms and heatwaves for some adjacent land areas.  The poleward shift is bad news for the East Coast of the U.S., because it makes sea level rise even worse. On the West Coast, salmon are being pushed out of traditional fishing waters. In densely populated coastal Asia, the changes could unleash more intense rainstorms, and the shift also makes heat waves more likely in subtropical areas.

Ocean temperatures highest of any decade on record

The heat in the world’s oceans reached a new record level in 2019, showing “irrefutable and accelerating” heating of the planet. The world’s oceans are the clearest measure of the climate emergency because they absorb more than 90% of the heat trapped by the greenhouse gases emitted by fossil fuel burning, forest destruction and other human activities.  The new analysis shows the past five years are the top five warmest years recorded in the ocean and the past 10 years are also the top 10 years on record. The amount of heat being added to the oceans is equivalent to every person on the planet running 100 microwave ovens all day and all night.

Greenland meltdown matches worst case scenario

The Greenland ice sheet’s losses have accelerated so fast since the 1990s it is now shedding more than seven times as much ice each year, according to 89 scientists who use satellites to study the area.  The sheet’s total losses nearly doubled each decade, from 33 billion tons per year in the 1990s to an average now of 254 billion tons annually. Since 1992, nearly 4 trillion tons of Greenland ice have entered the ocean, the new analysis found, equivalent to roughly a centimeter of global sea-level rise. While a centimeter may not sound like much, that uptick is already affecting millions.

IPCC issues "code red" for the world's oceans

Earth’s oceans are under severe strain from climate change, a major new United Nations report warns, which threatens everything from the ability to harvest seafood to the well-being of hundreds of millions of people living along the coasts. Rising temperatures are contributing to a drop in fish populations in many regions, and oxygen levels in the ocean are declining while acidity levels are on the rise, posing risks to important marine ecosystems, according to the report issued Wednesday by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Ocean waters, when combined with rising sea levels, threaten to fuel ever more powerful tropical cyclones and floods, the report said, further imperiling coastal regions and worsening a phenomenon that is already contributing to storms like Hurricane Harvey, which devastated Houston two years ago.

Oceans will rise 15 feet much sooner than projected
A draft of a report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change says rising sea levels and warming waters are about to unleash “misery on a global scale.”  The final report, scheduled to be published on September 25, warns that ocean levels could rise by several feet before the end of this century. But Richard Alley, a noted climate scientist with a specialty in glaciers and ice sheets, warns the IPCC prediction may be greatly understated. He foresees the possibility that sea levels will rise 15 to 20 feet within the lifetime of our children and grandchildren.

World's oceans are heating much faster than previously thought

Scientists say the world’s oceans are warming far more quickly than previously thought, a finding with dire implications for climate change because almost all the excess heat absorbed by the planet ends up stored in their waters. The oceans are heating up 40 percent faster on average than a United Nations panel estimated five years ago. Ocean temperatures have broken records for several straight years.

Acidification is changing the floor of the oceans
From heat waves to severe storms and wildfires, the effects of climate change are visible all around us — and new research suggests that the impact of a warming world extends all the way to the bottom of the ocean. A study published Oct. 29 in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences shows that high leves of carbon dioxide -- the heat-trapping greenhouse gas that is a key contributor to Earth's warming climate — have made parts of the North Atlantic Ocean and the Southern Ocean so acidic that the chalky white mineral that makes up the seafloor is dissolving.

Kelp forests threatened by warming waters, invasive species

The loss of kelp, from the coast of southern Maine to Boston Harbor, is one of the results of warming in the Gulf of Maine, which extends from Cape Cod to Nova Scotia. It also reflects a global trend. Warming waters and a corresponding rise of invasive species have led to a decline in more than a third of the planet’s kelp forests, especially along the coasts of California and Australia, scientists say.

Oceans trapped 60 percent more heat than previously thought

Over the past quarter-century, Earth’s oceans have retained 60 percent more heat each year than scientists previously had thought. The difference represents an enormous amount of additional energy, originating from the sun and trapped by Earth’s atmosphere — the yearly amount representing more than eight times the world’s annual energy consumption.

Ocean current slowdown points toward an increasingly stormy future

Scientists have found new evidence that the Atlantic Ocean's circulation has slowed by about 15 percent since the middle of the last century. If it continues to slow, that could have profound consequences for Earth's inhabitants.  Studies suggest it would mean much colder winters and hotter summers in Europe, changing rainfall patterns in the tropics, and warmer water building up along the U.S. coast that can fuel sea level rise and destructive storms. The changes in the North Atlantic could also intensify streams of icebergs into shipping lanes and coastal ice jams that hinder navigation.

Gulf Stream weaker than in 1,600 years
The warm Atlantic current linked to severe and abrupt changes in the climate in the past is now at its weakest in at least 1,600 years, new research shows. The findings, based on multiple lines of scientific evidence, throw into question previous predictions that a catastrophic collapse of the Gulf Stream would take centuries to occur. Such a collapse would see western Europe suffer far more extreme winters, sea levels rise fast on the eastern seaboard of the US and would disrupt vital tropical rains. The new research shows the current is now 15% weaker than around 400AD, an exceptionally large deviation, and that human-caused global warming is responsible for at least a significant part of the weakening.

Sea ice shrinks to record January low

The dire impact of climate change on the US, spelt out in the federal government’s most recent National Climate Assessment report, looks even worse after further research, according to scientists working in the field.  Scientists involved in November’s assessment, an exercise mandated by Congress that takes place every four years, gave an update at the American Association for the Advancement of Science meeting.  New findings about sea level rise and the frequency of severe weather, reinforced the report’s message that “climate change is not just something for the future.

Australian Scientists Find "Missing Ocean Current Link"
Australian scientists have discovered a giant underwater current that is one of the last missing links of a system that connects the world's oceans and helps govern global climate. New research shows that a current sweeping past Australia's southern island of Tasmania toward the South Atlantic is a previously undetected part of the world climate system's engine-room, said scientist Ken Ridgway.

Deep Sea Turbulence Found to Influence Climate
More than a mile beneath the Atlantic's surface, roughly halfway between New York and Portugal, seawater rushes through the narrow gullies of an underwater mountain range much like winds gusting between a city's tall buildings. This deep-water turbluence  is generating much of the mixing of warm and cold waters in the Atlantic Ocean.

Warming Speeds Up Giant Ocean Waves

Gigantic ocean waves, spanning hundreds of kilometres from crest to crest, have been speeding up thanks to global warming, a new model suggests.

Researchers Debate Role of Sea Temperatures on Hurricane Intensity

Hurricanes over the past 5,000 years appear to have been controlled more by El Nino and an African monsoon than warm sea surface temperatures, such as those caused by global warming, researchers said. While some researchers say warmer seas appear to have contributed to more intense hurricanes, others disagree. The IPCC said this year it was more likely than not that humans contribute to a trend of increasingly intense hurricanes.

Southern Ocean's Carbon Levels Shock Scientists
The Southern Ocean around Antarctica is so loaded with carbon dioxide that it can barely absorb any more, so more of the gas will stay in the atmosphere to warm up the planet. Researcher Corinne Le Quere said, "We thought we would be able to detect these only the second half of this century, say 2050 or so," she said. But data from 1981 through 2004 show that the sink is already full of carbon dioxide. "I find this really quite alarming."

Gulf Stream Shift Removed From Scientific Forecasts
Mainstream climatologists who have feared that global warming could have the paradoxical effect of cooling northwestern Europe or even plunging it into a small ice age have stopped worrying about that particular disaster, although it retains a vivid hold on the public imagination.

Ocean Acidity Up 30 Percent

Global warming has increased acidity levels of the oceans by 30 percent and in the decades ahead will create new risks for coral, zooplankton and other creatures that help support the North Pacific fisheries, according to researchers at the University of Washington.


Panel Spells Out Coming US Water Woes
As the world warms, water is going to be the major problem for the US.  States will clashg over controls of rivers. In the Southwest, regions will need to find new sources of drinking water, the Great Lakes will shrink, fish and other species will be left high and dry, and coastal areas will occasionally be inundated because of sea-level rises and souped-up storms, U.S. scientists said. Internationally, , water shortages and floods will worsen conflicts and terrorism elsewhere in the world.

Rising Sea Swallows Land, Culture of Indian Island

The sinking of Ghoramara can be attributed to a confluence of disasters, natural and human, not least the rising sea. There is little doubt, scientists say, that human-induced climate change has made them particularly vulnerable. A recent study  found that in the last 30 years, nearly 31 square miles of the Sundarbans have vanished entirely.

Marine Life Counteracts Oceans' "Carbon Sink" Activity
A major study has shed new light on the dim layer of the ocean called the "twilight zone" -- where mysterious processes affect the ocean's ability to absorb and store carbon dioxide accumulating in our atmosphere. Carbon dioxide -- taken up by photosynthesizing marine plants in the sunlit ocean surface layer -- does not necessarily sink to the depths, where it is stored and prevented from re-entering the atmosphere as a greenhouse gas. Instead, carbon transported to the depths on sinking marine particles is often consumed by animals and bacteria and recycled in the twilight zone -- 100 to 1,000 meters below the surface -- and never reaches the deep ocean.

IPCC Sounds Warning About Ocean Acidification
Rising carbon dioxide emissions are making the world's oceans more acidic, particularly closer to the poles, heralding disaster for marine life, a major UN report on climate change impacts says.

Greenland Winds Tied to Ocean Circulation Changes
Greenland's  hurricane-force winds that whipped recently around the southern tip of Greenland influence broader weather patterns, global ocean circulation and climate.

Currents Slowing in Southern Ocean
The impact of global warming on the vast Southern Ocean around Antarctica is starting to pose a threat to ocean currents that distribute heat around the world.

Sea Levels Seen Rising More Quickly
Data from satellites is showing that sea-level rises and polar ice-melting might be worse than earlier thought. Sea levels, rising at 1 millimetre a year before the industrial revolution, are now rising by 3 millimetres a year because of a combination of global warming, polar ice-melting and long natural cycles of sea level change.

Fallout is "Strangling" Southern Ocean

The pristine Southern Ocean, which swirls around the Antarctic and absorbs vast amounts of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, is  becoming more acidic as it absorbs increasing amounts of carbon dioxide produced by nations burning fossil fuels such as oil, coal and natural gas.

Warming-Driven Wind Shifts Create Marine "Dead Zones"

The delicate interplay between the oceans and atmosphere is changing with catastrophic consequences. Entire marine ecosystems have been wiped out, devastating populations of sea birds and larger marine mammals.

CO2 Found Deeper Than 4,000 Meters Below Ocean Surfaces

Human-generated carbon dioxide has sunk down to a great depth in the North Atlantic Ocean, a new study has shown. The work, published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences1, suggests that the oceans store CO2 for longer than expected -- good news for reducing the risk of climate change, but bad news for marine life in the deep sea.

Sea Levels Seen Rising Another 1,000 Years

World sea levels will keep rising for more than 1,000 years even if governments manage to slow a projected surge in temperatures this century blamed on greenhouse gases, a draft U.N. climate report says.

Indian Island Vanishes Under Rising Waters

Rising seas, caused by global warming, have for the first time washed an inhabited island off the face of the Earth. The obliteration of Lohachara island, in India's part of the Sundarbans where the Ganges and the Brahmaputra rivers empty into the Bay of Bengal, marks the moment when one of the most apocalyptic predictions of environmentalists and climate scientists has started coming true.

Giant Waves Increase With Warmer Oceans
Stormy weather all over the planet has caused a surge in the number of giant waves in 2006 -- perhaps a taste of what the surf could be like in a warmer world.

Seas May Rise Nearly 60 Percent Higher Than Anticipated

Current sea level rise projections could be under-estimating the impact of human-induced climate change on the world's oceans, scientists suggest. By plotting surface temperatures against sea level rise, the team found that levels could rise by 59% more than current forecasts.

Shallow Hydrates Pose Rapid Warming Risk

Geologists have discovered underwater deposits of hydrates  icy deposits of frozen methane gas  at far shallower depths under the ocean floor than expected. The finding suggests that, in a globally warmed world, the hydrates could melt suddenly and release their gas into the atmosphere, thus warming the planet even more.

Arctic Sea Ice Seen Vanishing in 35 Years

The Arctic may be close to a tipping point that sees all-year-round ice disappear very rapidly in the next few decades, US scientists have warned.

Warming Brings Huge Drop in Phytoplankton

New NASA satellite data find that the vital base of the ocean food web shrinks when the world's seas get hotter. And that discovery has scientists worried about how much food marine life will have as global warming progresses. The data show a significant link between warmer water  and reduced production of phytoplankton in the world's oceans.

Gulf Stream Slowed During "Little Ice Age"

The Gulf Stream carrying warm water to the North Atlantic slowed about 10 percent in the Little Ice Age from 1200 to 1850, said a US study that may give clues to the effects of modern global warming.

Weakening Atlantic Current Stalled for 10 Days in 2004

Scientists have uncovered more evidence for a dramatic weakening in the vast ocean current that gives Britain its relatively balmy climate by dragging warm water northwards from the tropics. The slowdown, which climate modellers have predicted will follow global warming, has been confirmed by the most detailed study yet of ocean flow in the Atlantic.

Alaska Storm Fractures Antarctic Ice Shelf

A bad storm in Alaska last October generated an ocean swell that broke apart a giant iceberg near Antarctica six days later, US researchers reported on Monday. The waves traveled 8,300 miles (13,500 km) to destroy the iceberg, said Douglas MacAyeal of the University of Chicago and Emile Okal at Northwestern University, adding the study shows how weather in one region can affect events far away.

New Model-Based Findings Confirms Human Link to Hurricane Intensity

Global warming caused by humans is largely responsible for heating hurricane-forming regions of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, probably increasing the intensity of the storms, scientists reported yesterday. The scientists used 22 computer models to simulate how the world's climate works and to help answer the question of whether more intense hurricanes are due to human activities.


Study Confirms Link Between Warming and Hurricane Strength

Global warming is affecting the intensity of Atlantic hurricanes, according to a new study by a university professor in Florida who says his research provides the first direct link between climate change and storm strength.

Scientists Worry Seabed Methane Hydrates Will Accelerate Warming

If the world continues to get warmer, vast amounts of methane gas trapped in ice under the sea could belch up and worsen climate change. Remarkable and unexpected support for this idea occurred when divers and scientists from UC Santa Barbara observed and videotaped a massive blowout of methane from the ocean floor.

US Coastal Areas Unprepared for Sea Level Rise

Though most of the country's ocean beaches are eroding, few coastal jurisdictions consider sea level rise in their coastal planning, and still fewer incorporate the fact that the rise is accelerating. Instead, they are sticking with policies that geologists say may help them in the short term but will be untenable or even destructive in

the future.

Lovejoy Sounds Alarm on Ocean Acidity

"It is little known outside of scientific circles that a fundamental change has already taken place in the chemistry of the two thirds of the earth's surface occupied by oceans. The change, of 0.1 of a pH unit, sounds trivial. . .but it translates to the upper layers of the oceans already being 30 percent more acid than in pre-industrial times."

Two More Studies Link Warming to Hurricane Strength

Climate researchers at Purdue University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology separately reported new evidence yesterday supporting the idea that global warming is causing stronger hurricanes.

Caribbean Coral Dying at Record Rate

A one-two punch of bleaching from record hot water followed by disease has killed ancient and delicate coral in the biggest loss of reefs scientists have ever seen in Caribbean waters.

Study Confirms Warming Strengthens Hurricanes

A 34-year trend of intensifying hurricanes has now been tied to warmer sea surface waters which, in turn, is being caused by global warming, say scientists. 

Alarm Grows over Ocean Acidification

The world's coral reefs could disappear within a few decades along with hundreds of species of plankton and shellfish. Researchers have found that carbon dioxide, the gas already blamed for causing global warming, is also raising the acid levels in the sea.

Studies Quantify Accelerating Rate of Sea Rise

The world's worst fears about global warming and rapid sea-level rise will be realised or exceeded, according to two new reports.
Australian climate change research published yesterday found the average level of the oceans had risen 19.5cm since 1870 and the rate was increasing. 
The study provides the first evidence of a 20th-century acceleration in sea-level rise and supports predictions the world's oceans will rise 31cm above 1990 levels by 2100.

Critical Plankton At Risk From Warming Oceans

The microscopic plants that underpin all life in the oceans are likely to be destroyed by global warming, a study has found. The vital plankton of the oceans can be starved of nutrients as a result of warming seas -- a development that can have catastrophic implications for the entire marine habitat.

Gulf Stream Found Weakening

The powerful ocean current that bathes Britain and northern Europe in warm waters from the tropics has weakened dramatically in recent years, a consequence of global warming that could trigger more severe winters and cooler summers across the region.

Pacific Ocean Warming Takes Frightening Toll

A catastrophic collapse in sea and bird life numbers along America's Northwest Pacific seaboard is raising fears that global warming is beginning to irreparably damage the health of the oceans. Scientists say a dramatic rise in the ocean temperature led to unprecedented deaths of birds and fish this summer all along the coast from central California to British Columbia in Canada.


Acidifying Oceans Threaten Food Chain

Rising carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is threatening to make oceans too corrosive for marine organisms to grow protective shells. If emissions continue unabated, the entire Southern Ocean, which stretches north from the Antarctic coastline, and subarctic regions of the Pacific Ocean will soon become so acidic that the shells of marine creatures will soften and dissolve.

Warming Shrinks Arctic Sea Ice to Lowest Level On Record

The floating cap of sea ice on the Arctic Ocean shrank this summer to what is probably its smallest size in at least a century of record keeping. That shift is hard to explain without attributing it in part to human-caused global warming, the team's members and other experts on the region said.

Penetration of Human-Induced Warming into the World's Oceans

"Wide-ranging evidence shows that Earth has been warming in recent decades . Observations show that 84% of the total heating of the Earth system ...over the last 40 years has gone into warming the oceans. . . [T]he conclusion that the observed ocean warming is due to human influences is robust to major perturbations of both the observed data set and model error."

Warming Caribbean Waters Accelerate Coral Bleaching

Corals off Florida, Barbados, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands and Cuba seemed to be undergoing the worst damage, known as bleaching, since 1997-1998. Corals are vital breeding grounds for many species of fish and draw tourists to the Caribbean.

Scientists assess reasons for Katrina's strength

"We examined the number of tropical cyclones and cyclone days as well as tropical cyclone intensity over the past 35 years, in an environment of increasing sea surface temperature. A large increase was seen in the number and proportion of hurricanes reaching categories 4 and 5. The largest increase occurred in the North Pacific, Indian, and Southwest Pacific Oceans, and the smallest percentage increase occurred in the North Atlantic Ocean. These increases have taken place while the number of cyclones and cyclone days has decreased in all basins except the North Atlantic during the past decade."  (Science -- Sept. 16, 2005)

Rate of Sea Level Rise Doubles

Melting ice and warming waters have raised average sea levels worldwide by more than an inch since 1995, new data from space satellites and robotic submarines have revealed. That's twice as fast as the rate the oceans rose during the previous 50 years.

Plankton Disappearing off US Pacific Coast

Oceanic plankton have largely disappeared from the waters off Northern California, Oregon and Washington, mystifying scientists, stressing fisheries and causing widespread seabird mortality.

North Atlantic Ocean Temperatures Highest on Record in 2004

Ocean temperatures in  the North Atlantic hit an all-time high last year, raising concerns about the effects of global warming on one of the most sensitive and productive ecosystems in the world.

British Scientists Affirm Ocean Acidification

Carbon dioxide is turning the oceans acidic, Britain's leading scientific organization warned yesterday. A panel of scientists from  the Royal Society said the growing acidity would be very likely to harm coral reefs and other marine life by the end of the century.

North Atlantic Current Seen Slowing in Ominous Finding

Climate change researchers have detected the first signs of a slowdown in the Gulf Stream -- the mighty ocean current that keeps Britain and Europe from freezing. One of the "engines" driving the Gulf Stream -- the sinking of supercooled water in the Greenland Sea -- has weakened to less than a quarter of its former strength. The weakening, apparently caused by global warming, could herald big changes in the current over the next few years or decades -- leading to a sharp drop in temperatures in Britain and northwestern Europe.

RCCE Would Decimate Marine Food Chain

If the North Atlantic Ocean's circulation system is shut down -- an apocalyptic global-warming scenario -- the impact on the world's food supplies would be disastrous, a study said Thursday. The shutdown would cause global stocks of plankton, a vital early link in the food chain, to decline by a fifth while plankton stocks in the North Atlantic itself would shrink by more than half, it said. A massive decline of plankton stocks could have catastrophic effects on fisheries and human food supply in the affected regions.

Deep Ocean Warming Tied to CO2 Buildup

A leading US team of climate researchers released "the most compelling evidence yet" that human activities are responsible for global warming. They said their analysis should "wipe out" claims by sceptics that recent warming is due to non-human factors such as natural fluctuations in climate or variations in solar or volcanic activity.

Russian River Flows Validate Human Impact

 Increased flows of Russian rivers into the Arctic Ocean are due to man-made greenhouse gases and might indicate changing global rainfall patterns, according to a report by leading British climate scientists. That trend is reflected in climate models on when the effects of human-generated greenhouse gases are added.

Rising Sea Levels Worry Island Nations

It sounds insignificant alongside the Indian Ocean tsunami, yet an almost imperceptible annual rise in the world's oceans may pose a huge threat to ports, coasts and islands by 2100. Rising sea levels, now about 0.08 inch a year, could swamp low-lying countries like Tuvalu in the Pacific or the Maldives in the Indian Ocean if temperatures keep rising.

Most Coral Reefs Succumbing to Warming

About 70 percent of the world's coral reefs have been wrecked or are at risk from human activities but some are showing surprising resilience to global warming, a report said on Monday. "Twenty percent of the world's coral reefs have been effectively destroyed or show no immediate prospects of recovery," said the report, which added that another "24 percent are under imminent risk of collapse through human pressures, and a further 26 percent are under a longer-term threat of collapse."

Arctic Ice Melt Accelerates Sea Level Rise

Global warming is melting the Arctic ice faster than expected, and the world's oceans could rise by about a meter (3 feet) by 2100, swamping homes from Bangladesh to Florida, according to the head of the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment.

Antarctic Glaciers Speed Flow Into Oceans

Spurred by warming coastal air and waters, some of Antarctica's glaciers have accelerated their seaward march, fresh observations show, suggesting that ocean levels might be irreversibly on the rise for centuries to come.

Arctic Ocean Temperature Surges

German scientists probing global warming said  they had detected a major temperature rise this year in the Arctic Ocean and linked this to a progressive shrinking of the region's sea ice. Temperatures recorded this year in the upper 500 meters (1,625 feet) of sea in the Fram Strait -- the gap between Greenland and the Norwegian island of Spitsbergen -- were up to 0.6 C (1.08 F) higher than in 2003, they said in a press release. The rise was detectable to a water depth of 2,000 meters (6,500 feet), "representing an exceptionally strong signal by ocean standards," it said.

Acidity of Oceans May Doom Coral by 2065

The increasing acidity of the world's oceans could banish all coral by 2065, a leading marine expert has warned. Professor Katherine Richardson said sea organisms that produced calcareous structures would struggle to function in the coming decades as pH levels fell. The Danish expert told the EuroScience Open Forum 2004 that human-produced carbon dioxide was radically changing the marine environment.

Ocean Absorption of CO2 May Harm Marine Life

Nearly 50% of the carbon dioxide that humans have pumped into the atmosphere over the last 200 years has been absorbed by the sea, scientists say.  Consequently, atmospheric levels of the potent greenhouse gas are not nearly as high as they might have been. But the heavy concentration of carbon dioxide in the oceans has changed their chemistry, making it hard for some marine animals to form shells.

North Sea Collapse Creates Seabird Crisis

A shortage of food has pushed the seabird colonies in the Northern Isles into an unprecedented crisis. The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds has revealed that this year has been the worst on record for the birds in Orkney and Shetland, which have produced fewer young than in any previous year. Almost all seabirds breeding in Shetlands internationally important colonies feed on sandeels, which have become increasingly scarce.

Warming Seen Altering North Sea Ecology

Strange things are happening in the North Sea. Cod stocks are slumping faster than over-fishing can account for, and Mediterranean species like red mullet are migrating north. Several sea birds are also in trouble. Kittiwake numbers are falling fast and guillemots are struggling to breed. And, earlier this summer, hundreds of fulmar (a relative of the albatross) corpses washed up on the Norfolk coast, having apparently starved to death. Scientists suspect these events are linked and they blame global warming.

Thawing Ocean Methane Hydrates Worries Scientists

A thawing of vast ice-like deposits of gas under oceans and in permafrost could sharply accelerate global warming in the 21st century, British-based scientists said yesterday. Rising temperatures could break down buried mixtures of water, methane and other gases - called gas hydrates - and release them into the atmosphere where they would trap the sun's heat, they said. Gas hydrates could be a "serious geohazard in the near future," the Benfield Hazard Research Center said in a report.

Scientists: Warming Will Not Lead to Northern Deep-Freeze

In light of the paleoclimate record and our understanding of the contemporary climate system, it is safe to say that global warming will not lead to the onset of a new ice age. These same records suggest that it is highly unlikely that global warming will lead to a widespread collapse of the AMO--despite the appealing possibility raised in two recent studies --although it is possible that deep convection in the Labrador Sea will cease. Such an event would have much more minor consequences on the climate downstream over Europe.

Scientists: Pentagon Scenario is "Extreme and Unlikely"

Some climate scientists have been stirred to ridicule claims in an upcoming Hollywood blockbuster that global warming could trigger a new ice age. Stefan Rahmstorf of the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research in Germany, whose own models say the Gulf Stream could shut down within a century, said: "The DoD scenario is extreme and highly unlikely."

Better El Nino Forecasts Could Reduce Damage

The hugely damaging El Nino weather pattern can be predicted further ahead than previously thought, giving farmers crucial time to prepare for its devastating effects, new research shows.

Warming is "Tearing The Heart Out" of Coral Reefs

The world's coral reefs could be badly damaged by global warming unless drastic intervention measures are introduced. Warming is harming coral reefs in at least three ways. Changes of just 1 or 2 °C can stifle the life-giving algae. Spiralling levels of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, dissolve in sea water, creating an acidic cocktail that stops polyps oozing their skeleton. And warmer water makes the reef more vulnerable to other threats, such as overfishing, diseases and pollutants that drain into coastal waters.

Rising Seas Threaten Millions of Coastal Residents in China

Sea levels around China's coasts are expected to continue rising in the next three to 10 years, creating grave challenges for coastal dwellers.

3,000-Year-Old Arctic Ice Shelf Ruptures

The largest ice shelf in the Arctic -- an 80-foot-thick slab of ice nearly the size of Lake Tahoe -- has broken up, providing more evidence that the Earth's polar regions are responding to ongoing and accelerating rates of climatic change, researchers reported. The Ward Hunt Ice Shelf, on the north coast of Ellesmere Island in Canada's Nunavut territory, broke into two main parts, themselves cut through with fissures. A freshwater lake drained into the sea, the researchers reported. Large ice islands also calved off from the shelf and some are large enough to be dangerous to shipping and to drilling platforms in the Beaufort Sea.

Scientists Warn of Imminent New Ice Age

Britain is likely to be plunged into an ice age within our lifetime by global warming, new research suggests. A study, which is being taken seriously by top government scientists, has uncovered a change "of remarkable amplitude" in the circulation of the waters of the North Atlantic.

Southern Ocean Current Critical to Marine Nutrition

Almost all marine life on the planet turns on a single ocean circulation pattern in the Southern Hemisphere which pumps nutrient-rich water from the deep and spreads it across the seas, scientists report.It suggests ocean life may be more sensitive to climate change than previously believed. Three quarters of all biological activity in the oceans relies on this single pattern in the Southern Ocean, reports Prof Jorge Sarmiento, of Princeton University, who led the study published today in Nature.

Changes In Atlantic Salinity Detected

The delicate salt balance of the Atlantic Ocean has altered so dramatically in the last four decades through global warming that it is changing the very heat-conduction mechanism of the ocean and stands to turn Northern Europe into a frigid zone.  The study describes planet-scale changes in the regulatory function of the ocean that affect precipitation, evaporation, fresh-water cycles and climate. "This has the potential to change the circulation of the ocean significantly in our lifetime," said Ruth Curry of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Massachusetts, the study's lead author.

Warming Means More Snow for Great Lakes

Global warming means more snow, not less, for the Great Lakes and the snowbound region along the eastern border between Canada and the United States. Their study of snowfall records in the Great Lakes region and elsewhere suggests there has been a significant increase in snowfall in the Great Lakes region since the 1930s but not anywhere else.

Warming Waters Disintegrating Ice Shelves

The gradual warming of Antarctic waters is indeed causing ice shelves there to melt and collapse at rates that astonish many experts.

North Sea Undergoing "Ecological Meltdown" Due to Warming

The North Sea is undergoing "ecological meltdown" as a result of global warming, according to startling new research. Scientists say that they are witnessing "a collapse in the system", with devastating implications for fisheries and wildlife. Record sea temperatures are killing off the plankton on which all life in the sea depends, because they underpin the entire marine food chain. Fish stocks and sea bird populations have slumped."A regime shift has taken place and the whole ecology of the North Sea has changed quite dramatically", says Dr Chris Reid, the foundation's director. "We are seeing visual evidence of climate change on a large-scale ecosystem. We are likely to see even greater warming, with

NASA Finds Startling Changes in the Arctic

Tthe Arctic region is warming up and its sea ice cover is diminishing, with implications for further climate change throughout the globe.  Compared with the 1980s, surface temperatures across most of the Arctic warmed significantly in the last decade, with the biggest temperature increases occurring over North America with the rate of warming  between 1981 and 2001 was eight times the rate of warming over the last 100 years.

CO2 Threatens to Acidify Oceans

Rising carbon dioxide levels are increasing the acidity of the world's oceans more rapidly than any time since the age of dinosaurs -- adding a worrisome new element to the debate over global environmental change. The change could threaten the health of everything from microscopic plankton to coral reefs and reach from the surface to the ocean depths.

Rising Temperatures Kill 90 percent of Indian Ocean Coral

A rise in sea temperatures killed off 90 per cent of the coral reefs near the surface of the Indian Ocean in only one year, while the remaining 10 per cent could die in the next 20 years, devastating fish stocks and tourism vital to coastal economies, new research  says.

Overfishing Depletes 90 percent of Large Fish Worldwide

A new global study concludes that 90 percent of all large fishes have disappeared from the world's oceans in the past half century, the devastating result of industrial fishing.  Whether off the coast of Newfoundland, Canada, or in the Gulf of Thailand, the findings were dire: "[T]here is nowhere left in the ocean not overfished," said Ransom Myers, a fisheries biologist at Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia and lead author of the study.

Rapid Antarctic Warming Threatens Accelerated Sea Level Rise

New evidence from a rapidly warming part of Antarctica suggests that ice can flow into the sea much more readily than had been predicted, perhaps leading to an accelerated rise in sea levels from global warming. Many polar and ice experts said the new study, to be published today in the journal Science, suggested that seas might rise as much as several yards over the next several centuries. They called that prospect a slow-motion disaster, the cost of which -- in lost shorelines, salt in water supplies, and damaged ecosystems -- would be borne by many future generations.

Link Seen Between Ocean Temperatures And Continental Drought
Unusual temperatures in the Indian and Pacific oceans set up the perfect conditions for drought stretching nearly around the world in 1998-2002, climate researchers report. The four-year drought affected much of the United States as well as southern Europe and southwest Asia. And while they can't be certain, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration climate scientists Martin Hoerling and Arun Kumar say it may be a harbinger of droughts to come.

East Coast Cold Snap Tied to Warming

Why is it so frigid when the globe is warming? As several scientists have warned, global warming will be full of surprises. Part of the explanation comes from changes to our north. Warming causes ice to melt, forming cold fresh water. And increased input of cold fresh water to the ocean can affect weather patterns as well as global ocean circulation. Recent warming in the Northern Hemisphere has melted a lot of North Polar ice. Since the 1970s the floating North Polar ice cap has thinned by almost half.A second source of cold fresh water comes from Greenland, where continental ice is now melting at higher elevations each year, accelerating ice ''rivers.'' A third source of cold fresh water is rain at high latitudes.

Arctic Fresh Water Flow Troubles Scientists
The average annual discharge of fresh water into the Arctic Ocean from the six largest Eurasian rivers has increased seven percent since 1936, an international research team has found. The team correlated this increase in freshwater flow to historic patterns of climate change.

Scientists Refocus on Conveyor Belt Shutdown

In what would be a surprising byproduct of global warming, average temperatures in North America and Europe could drop by 5 to 10 degrees Fahrenheit in the coming decades as melting polar ice and increased water evaporation profoundly alter the ocean currents that keep both regions warm, say researchers at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.

Antarctic Marine Species Threatened by Warming
Global warming is changing the life patterns of marine species in Antarctica as fast, if not faster than anyplace on Earth, say scientists from the British Antarctic Survey (BAS). Thousands of Antarctic marine species, adapted to constant temperatures for millions of years, now appear to be uniquely vulnerable in the face of predicted temperature change.

El Nino Pushes Extremes in Summer 2002 Weather Patterns

The weather phenomenon El Nino, which is intensified by atmospheric warming, is being blamed by scientists for the freak weather conditions which have caused chaos and many deaths around the world. More than 140 people have died in storms across Europe and Asia in the past few days. But the US and parts of south-east Asia are seeing their worst droughts in many years.

Great Barrier Reef Suffers Largest Bleaching Ever

Coral bleaching in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park may be the worst on record, scientists said after the most comprehensive aerial survey ever conducted. The survey is aimed at helping unravel the implications of global warming for reef management. "Until now, the coral bleaching episode in 1998 was the worst on record, but the 2002 event was probably worse because more reef area was affected," said Dr. Ray Berkelmans.

Antarctic Disintegrations Alarm Scientists

The Antarctic Peninsula ice shelves are cracking up and, on the face of things, it is the most serious thaw since the end of the last ice age 12,000 years ago. The break-up of the ice shelves in itself is a natural process of renewal, but the size and rate of production of icebergs -- some the size of major cities -- is alarming scientists, some of whom blame global warming.

Fractured Ice Shelf Endangers Antarctic Wildlife

A Connecticut-sized iceberg is clogging part of the Ross Sea in Antarctica, threatening not only human endeavors there, but disrupting native wildlife. That means there is less near-shore open water for the sun to penetrate and stimulate blooms of microscopic plant life, called phytoplankton. That drop in life at the base of the food chain is leading to less food for fish, seals, whales and penguins.

New Antarctic Ice Shelf Fractures

An Antarctic ice shelf that was 200 metres thick and with a surface area of 3,250 square kilometers has broken apart in less than a month. UK scientists say the Larsen B shelf on the eastern side of the Antarctic Peninsula has fragmented into small icebergs.

GHGs linked to Fiercer El Ninos

Rising concentrations of greenhouse gases may have tipped the world into a changed climate pattern, research by two Australian government climate scientists indicates. The surface waters in the eastern Pacific Ocean, off the United States and Central America, have been warmer since the mid-1970s than at any time in the past.

Tuvalu President:

It's too late for Tuvalu, a small island nation in the Pacific. Ten thousand people, Tuvalu's entire population, are packing their bags as their homes among nine low-level atolls are being swallowed by the rising sea. These are the facts of life: the earth is warming, the sea levels are rising, and Tuvalu is quietly being erased from the surface of the earth.

Coral Reefs Shrinking At Alarming Rate

The most comprehensive mapping yet of the "rainforests of the oceans", prepared by the United Nations Environment Programme, showed the world's reefs covered between a half and one-tenth of the area of previous studies. The study showed coral reefs covered just 284,300 square km (110,000 square miles), or less than one-tenth of a percent of the world's seabed. UNEP Executive Director Klaus Toepfer said the world's coral reefs "are damaged by irresponsible tourism and are being severely stressed by the warming of the world's oceans. Each of these pressures is bad enough in itself, but together, the cocktail is proving lethal."

Two Studies Link Ocean Warming to Atmospheric Warming

Scientists have produced the strongest evidence yet that man-made global warming is responsible for a significant increase in the temperature of the world's oceans in the last 50 years.The average temperature of the major oceans has risen 0.06 degrees C since 1955.Two separate studies - both carried out using computer modelling techniques - have now linked that rise directly with global warming caused by human activity.

North Atlantic Conveyor Belt Weakening

Scientists have detected a substantial drop in the last 50 years in the flow of cold deep sea water leaving the Arctic and pouring into the Atlantic between Iceland and Scotland. Because the outflow of cold deep water has diminished, the influx of warm surface water that usually replaces it also has to have declined. That decrease could explain a recent cooling of some coastal regions near the Norwegian Sea.

Current Changes Jeopardizing Sea of Japan

Scientists see a disturbing change in underwater currents in the Sea of Japan -- triggered by global warming -- appear to be jeopardizing marine life and changing ocean chemistry.

ENSO Intensity Linked To Warming

El Niño and La Niña have almost never before reached the sustained intensity seen in the past century. The swings in Pacific temperatures tend to increase in warmer times — like now — but weakened by as much as 50 percent during the protracted cold of the last ice age. The findings suggest additional global warming could further intensify the the El Niño cycles and thus bring more bouts of destructive weather.

Warming Drives Disintegration of Ice Shelves

Warmer surface temperatures during summers can cause more ice on Antarctica ice shelves to melt into standing water ponds, then leak into cracks and increase the odds of collapse, according to a new study published by an American team of scientists. The team focused on the Larsen Ice Sheet on the Antarctic Peninsula. The Larsen Ice Sheet experienced major retreats in 1995 and 1998, including more than 775 square miles (2007 square kilometers) that disintegrated during a January 1995 storm.

Higher Ocean Waves From Warming

German scientists reported yesterday that the seas are getting rougher, perhaps because of global warming.In the journal Nature, H.H. Essen and two colleagues announced there has been a gradual increase in wave heights in the northeast Atlantic in the past few decades.

Iceberg 10 times the Size of Manhattan Breaks off Antarctica

An iceberg 10 times the size of Manhattan Island has broken free from Antarctica's Ross Ice Shelf, The National Ice Center In October, 2000. Iceberg B-20, as it is identified by the ice center, was discovered Wednesday by satellite monitoring. The exact date the 345-square-mile berg broke off the ice shelf could not be determined because of cloudiness in the area but it is thought to have been between Sept. 20 and 26.

Researchers Find 40 years of Deep Ocean Heating

Scientists have found that the world's oceans have soaked up much of the warming of the last four decades, delaying its full effect on the atmosphere and thus on climate. The deep ocean warming could trigger very large climate changes in the near future.

EnhancedCO2 Starves Coral Reefs

Scientists have found that if humans stay addicted to carbon dioxide-spewing fossil fuels, the world's complex coral reef ecosystems will be reduced by as much as 40 percent by the middle of this century.

Mass Coral Die-Off Due to Record Surface Temperatures

The highest sea temperatures ever recorded in the Caribbean have caused the first mass die-off of coral in Belize in 3,000 years, and scientists suspect that global warming and the El Nino weather phenomenon are to blame. The high temperatures in 1998 lasted for several months and caused much of the Belizean coral reef to bleach and die.

1800-year Ocean Cycle Augments Warming

Scientists at Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego, report evidence of pronounced changes in the earth's climate that can be tracked in cycles of ocean conditions over thousands of years. These cycles reveal that Earth is currently in a period in which a natural rise in global temperatures - combined with warming from the greenhouse effect - will push the planet through an era of rapid global warming.

Atmospheric Warming and the Changes in El Nino Patterns

Tampering with the global thermostat – by injecting more greenhouse gases into the air – will likely interfere with the traditional El Nino process. Some possible explanations for the changed behavior of El Niños in the past twenty years are that the Warm Pool in the tropical western Pacific is expanding; and/or the recharge phase of El Niño has speeded up; and/or the heat loss phase is less efficient. Any of these could follow from warming and result in more frequent El Niño events. With global greenhouse warming we should expect higher temperatures in the upper layers of the ocean, and a steeper drop in temperature beneath the surface, which would increase the magnitude of swings between La Niña and El Niño. (From the journal CONSEQUENCES, by Dr. Kevin Trenberth.)

Pacific Current Cycle Masks Warming

Changes in the Pacific Ocean are making it more likely that winter weather in much of the United States will exhibit unusual warmth alternating with sharp cold. Researchers said the pattern, prevalent this winter and last, might predominate for 20 or 30 years. That pattern predominated from the mid-1940's to the mid-1970's.

Ancient Methane Eruption May Hold Clues to Sudden Warming

The biggest global warming in the last 100 million years may have been touched off by a sudden blowout of greenhouse gases from the ocean floor. Scientists worry about a new eruption of seabed methane.

New Studies Focus on Rapid Climate Change Event
A series of new studies highlight intensified concerns among scientists that the thawing of the Arctic, and the infusion of fresh water in the North Atlantic, could presage a calamitous "climate snap."

Arctic Sea Ice Thins at Startling Rate

The great ice cover that stretches across the top of the globe has become about 40 percent thinner than it was two to four decades ago, scientists have found after analyzing data collected by nuclear submarines plying the Arctic Ocean.

Ocean Current Shutdown Could Occur in Two Decades

Within the next two decades, global warming could cause a complete shutdown of one of the two main pumps driving the formation of the North Atlantic Deep Water - causing a shutdown in Labrador Sea convection and the Labrador Current, which could, in turn trigger a large-scale Rapid Climate Change Event, according to a commentary and a new report in the journal Nature. The findings, according to a commentary, should be interpreted as a warning that a regional shut-down of convection could occur, and occur soon.

Rising Seas Are Submerging Louisiana Coast

Coastal Louisiana is literally sinking into the sea, giving the rest of North America an alarming glimpse of what may lie in store in the 21st century. Since 1930, an area 50 percent bigger than Rhode Island has returned to the sea in Louisiana and another Rhode Island-sized patch could go in the next 50 years.

Ocean Warming Impacts Sea Life Faster Than Expected

Rising global temperatures are impacting ocean ecosystems to a far greater extent than previously acknowledged. From the tropics to the poles, wide-spread changes in marine life are occurring in step with rising water temperatures. New evidence shows dramatic impacts arriving sooner than predicted.

Ocean Warming Escalates Marine Diseases

Marine diseases are escalating dramatically, according to surveys of coral, starfish, sea grasses, seals, sponges and other organisms, and in many cases the increase is being driven by warming.

Greenland ice sheet melting faster than expected

The southern half of the Greenland ice sheet, the second largest expanse of land-bound ice earth after Antarctica, has shrunk substantially in the last five years. Experts have said for some time that a warming atmosphere has caused many mountain glaciers around the world to shrink. But until now, they have not known what was happening to the Greenland ice cap.The new findings, reported in the March 5, 1999 issue of the journal Science, provide the first precise evidence that it, too, is diminishing.

Florida Palms Dying from Sea Level Rise

Rising global sea levels are killing cabbage palms and other coastal trees in Florida due to saltwater exposure as sea water pushes up through water tables.

Researchers Find Deep Ocean Warming
Rising temperatures in the ocean depths off Antarctica provide new evidence that pollution and gas emissions from the Industrial Age are causing global warming.Most measurements of global warming have been made at or near the Earth's surface.But new data from deep ocean probes in the Southern Ocean, Indian Ocean, and South Pacific show the same warming trend.

Antarctic Ice Shelf Break-Up Accelerates

Two ice shelves on the Antarctic Peninsula known as the Larsen B and Wilkins are in "full retreat" and have lost nearly 3,000 square kilometers of their total area in the last year. Researchers attribute the retreats to a regional warming trend which has caused the annual melt season to increase by two to three weeks over the last 20 years. Satellite photos monitored by NSIDC show that the Larsen B ice shelf has continued to crumble after an initial small retreat in spring 1998. In a series of events that began in November 1998, an additional 1,714 square kilometers of shelf area caved away.

Researchers Document Arctic Sea Ice Shrinkage

Since the early 1970s scientists have observed a steady decline in the extent of the Arctic sea-ice cover, which is disappearing at a rate of approximately 3% each decade. Furthermore, other, less complete records of Arctic sea-ice suggest that the decline in extent has been continuous since mid-century. Even with this trend, the 1990s have seen four summers in which the aerial extent of Arctic sea-ice was the smallest ever observed. While the reduction in ice extent is unequivocal, changes in thickness are also apparent, but more ambiguous. During a year-long experiment in the Arctic in 1998, the thickest ice floe found for the purposes of setting up an ice station was only 60% of the average (not even maximum) sea-ice thickness anticipated.

Do disappearing icebergs signal global warming?

For reasons no one understands -- although global warming is a top suspect -- the Grand Banks shipping lanes, which are located southeast of Newfoundland, were an ice-free zone.For the first time in 85 years, the International Ice Patrol (IIP) issued not a single bulletin reporting lurking bergs.

Ocean Warming Could Impair CO2 Absorption
Global warming could disrupt the ability of a large portion of the world's oceans to absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, setting off a vicious cycle in which the earth gets even hotter

Warming Waters Trigger Massive Iceshelf Rupture
An iceberg larger than the state of Delaware has broken off the Ronne Ice Shelf in Antarctica in what scientists believe may be a sign of global warming. The iceberg, named A-38, measures 92 miles long (147 km) and 30 miles (50 km) wide and covers an area of about 2,751 square miles.

Ocean Warming Creates Pacific Wasteland
The population of tiny marine organisms called zooplankton off the coast of southern California had declined by a stunning 70 percent over the last twenty years due to warming surface waters.

Scientists Discover Further Disintegration of Antarctic Ice Shelves
In 1995, a Rhode-Island sized section of the Larsen Ice Shelf broke off from Antarctica due to ocean warming. In the following year, scientists discovered that five of the nine ice shelves attached to the Antarctic Peninsula have disintegrated over the last half century, as temperatures have risen. In the spring of 1998, a second huge section of the same ice shelf collapsed into the ocean.

Pacific Warming

The surface waters of the eastern Pacific have warmed by 2 degrees in the last 20 years -- independent of El Nino events. That has led to a 70 percent decline in the population of zooplankton, a five percent decline in fish populations, the wholesale death of seals and sea lions, and a 90 percent decline in the population of a species of sea bird

Recent El Nino a 1-in-2000 year event
while most El Nino events last only a year or two, scientists noted at the beginning of 1996 that the recent El Nino -- which had lasted for five years and eight months -- was a one-in-2000 year occurrence.

El Nino's growing ferocity: Ocean in the greenhouse?
Statistical climate models reveal the recent sequence of El Niños is highly unusual, while computer simulations of future climate show El Niño-like seas becoming more the norm as greenhouse gases increase. Computer models also suggest El Niño is the primary planetary "heat machine" pumping growing greenhouse warming around the planet.

El Nino Impacted by Atmospheric Warming
Global warming appears to be making the impact of El Niño more severe,federal officials said yesterday, and that may help explain why the first half of 1998 has set temperature records worldwide.

Warming Threatens Permanent El Nino

El Nino conditions might settle in almost permanently if global warming gets bad enough, making climate disruptions such as droughts or excessive winter rain the norm, a computer study suggests.

Warming Stirs Fears of Ice Sheet Collapse
If the earth's temperature heats up as mainstream scientists predict it will over the next century, the average level of the world's oceans could rise by about a foot and a half by 2100, and somewhat more after that, as glaciers partly melt and the heating makes sea water expand, inundating many low-lying coastal areas. But it would be trivial compared with the melting or collapse of the huge West Antarctic ice sheet, the Godzilla of the game of rising seas. This would loose so much water into the oceans that they would rise by a truly catastrophic 13 to 20 feet.

Ocean Changes could Trigger Climate Snap
Warming could melt more snow and ice, flooding the North Atlantic with fresh water and upsetting the workings of large ocean currents. Just such an event may have been responsible for plunging the world back into glacial conditions for several centuries, starting about 12,000 years ago, after it had temporarily warmed near the end of the last ice age. (Four stories)

Rapid Climate Change: A Primer
Much to the surprise of investigators, evidence is mounting that major changes in the earth’s climate can take place in a very short time. Data from ice cores and ocean sediments suggest, for example, that 11,650 years ago the climate in Greenland switched from ice-age conditions to the current relatively warm conditions (a warming of 5 to 10 degrees Celsius on average) in only 40 years. The author describes the oceanic currents that influence climate and establish its stability, as well as "triggers" that may perturb changes -- including the possibility that "greenhouse" warming could invoke a rapid switch.

Sea Level Rise Threatens Massachusetts Coast
Rising sea levels threaten the Massachusetts coast. Parts of Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket and Cape Cod could be underwater in the next century.